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Q:

With reference to a sport of choice, outline the application of accelerometry

A:

1) Use of GPS devices to asses distance covered, sprints and accelerations

2)

a) Assessment of physical activity measures (Barry, 1987)

b) Injury/pain causes (Voloshin & Wosk, 1982)

c) Assessment of running gait

d) Protective equipment (Bishop *et al.* 1984; Bishop & Biard 1984)

Q:

Define Young' Modulus using stress-strain diagrams

A:

Young's Modulus (E): The slope of a line on a stress-strain diagram is a measure of the stiffness of a material

Add in a stress-strain diagram showing a change in strain divided by change in stress

Q:

Define the variables of this equation

x = 4FL^3/3π Er^4

A:

It is the equation used to calculate the vertical deviation in a cantilever with a circular cross section/calculate the bending of a bone

X = vertical distance

F = force applied

E = Material stiffness / Young's Modulus

r = radius of cantilever

L = length of cantilever

Q:

Breifly discuss the five differnet sections outlined on the stress-strain diagram obtained for a section of a human ligament

A:

1 = toe region -

2 = linear / elastic region

3 = progressive failure / plastic region - where further stress will cause permanent deformation

4 = major failure - where the maximum stress or strain can be withstood before failure

5 = complete failure - rupture

1 = normal ligament

2-3 = thinning ligment

4 = overstretched - grade 2

5 = rupture

Q:

Define variables in the following equation

= (2t(l - x)/r)

A:

o(x) = stress induced in fibre

t = interfacical stress

r = radius

l = half the length of the fibre

x = distance

Q:

Define Poisson’s Ratio

A:

Materials will typically deform in more than one axis when a load is applied

Q:

State the 4 functions of bone, tendon and ligament

A:

1) support

2) facilitation of movement

3) protection of internal organs

4) storage of minerals and fat

5) hematopoiesis

Ligmanets conncet bone to bone

Tendons connect muscles to bone

Q:

Calculate unknown forces

A:

Efx = m.ax

Efx = distal + proximal = m.ax

Efy =m.ay

Efy = distal + proximal + m.g = m.ay

Efx = distal + proximal = m.ax

Efy =m.ay

Efy = distal + proximal + m.g = m.ay

Q:

Newton's 1st law

A:

The law of inertia

States that a body will remain in it's current state of motion unless acted upon by an external force

States that a body will remain in it's current state of motion unless acted upon by an external force

Q:

Newton's 2nd law

A:

Law of acceleration

States that the acceleration of an object is dependent upon two variables - the net force acting upon the object and the mass of the object

States that the acceleration of an object is dependent upon two variables - the net force acting upon the object and the mass of the object

Q:

Newton's 3rd law

A:

Law of reaction

States that when one body applied a force to another body, the second body applied an equal and opposite reaction force on the first body

Q:

Strain gauges

A:

1) No. Of strain sensitive wires

2) attached to cantilever - fixed base

3) wires - wheatstone bridge circuit

4) bone is (v) = ME to deform due to own inertia

5) deformation = change in wires = change in resistance + balance to bridge circuit

6) Results = output proportional to (v) of base

2) attached to cantilever - fixed base

3) wires - wheatstone bridge circuit

4) bone is (v) = ME to deform due to own inertia

5) deformation = change in wires = change in resistance + balance to bridge circuit

6) Results = output proportional to (v) of base

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