What is alpha hydroxy midazolam?

What is alpha hydroxy midazolam?

α-Hydroxymidazolam a-Hydroxymidazolam is an active, major metabolite in urine and blood of the benzodiazepine, midazolam. Midazolam is sold as Dormicum, Hypnovel, and Versed as a sedative and treatment for insomnia and seizures.

What is the active metabolite of midazolam?

Midazolam converts into its active metabolite alpha-1 hydroxy midazolam, which contributes to 10% of drug action. Midazolam metabolism occurs via hepatic CYP450 enzymes and glucuronide conjugation.

What is alpha hydroxy alprazolam used for?

Alpha-hydroxyalprazolam is a metabolite of both alprazolam and adinazolam. Alprazolam (trade name Xanax, available among other generic names) is a short-acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs.

Is midazolam hydrophilic or lipophilic?

Midazolam is a benzodiazepine with a unique imidazole ring that allows for both lipophilic and hydrophilic properties. When the pH is less than 4, it is water soluble and the chance of pain at the injection site is lowered. Unlike other benzodiazepines, midazolam becomes lipophilic at a pH greater than 4.

How does midazolam cause death?

Midazolam injection may cause serious or life-threatening breathing problems such as shallow, slowed, or temporarily stopped breathing that may lead to permanent brain injury or death.

What is Levomepromazine used for?

In palliative care, levomepromazine is predominantly used for the treatment of nausea and vomiting, and for severe delirium or agitation at the end of life.

How does alpha hydroxy acid work?

Alpha hydroxy acids seem to work by removing the top layers of dead skin cells. They can also increase the thickness of deeper layers of skin, promoting firmness.

Is alprazolam an antidepressant?

Alprazolam appears to be an effective antidepressant in the treatment of outpatients who have a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The authors have reviewed six controlled double-blind studies of alprazolam in the treatment of depression.

How is midazolam eliminated?

Most of a dose of midazolam is eliminated via urine, although some are eliminated via feces as well. For most adults, an entire dose of midazolam is eliminated within a day. For children and geriatric patients, it can take a little longer than this.

What is the antidote for midazolam?

Conclusion: Flumazenil in a dose of 0.15 mg is a safe drug that reverses the sedative effect of midazolam.

Is midazolam given to patient at end of life?

Midazolam is a commonly used benzodiazepine in palliative care and is considered one of the four essential drugs needed for the promotion of quality care in dying patients. Acting on the benzodiazepine receptor, it promotes the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

What drugs are given at end of life?

End-of-life care and anticipatory prescribing

Action Medication Indication
Analgesic Morphine sulfate Pain or breathlessness
Anxiolytic sedative Midazolam Anxiety, distress, myoclonus
Anti-secretory Hyoscine butylbromide Respiratory secretions
Anti-emetic Levomepromazine Nausea, vomiting